A customer with a Direct MAPI Exchange connection reported seeing a "MAPI_E_NOT_INITIALIZED (0x80040605)"error in the CRM monitor when trying to sync target users.
CRM Agent Service Logon Not Configured
An examination of the crmex-log file revealed that the MAPI direct connection was using the credentials of the "riva" user
2012-04-13 11:08:19,362 INFO [CTP-sgq #1]  [ExMapiConnection, ConnectInner] Direct connection to [email@example.com] Mailbox:riva @ 192.168.120.14
but the CRM Agent service is running as the system user.
2012-04-13 11:08:18,395 INFO [CrmAgentStart] [(null)] [CrmAgent] Running As: 'NT-AUTORITÄT\SYSTEM' IsAuth:True Type:Negotiate
The CRM Agent service is not configured correctly. The service must be configured to logon as the user that Riva is connecting to Exchange or as a local administrator user with full access permissions to the file system where Riva is installed (a user assigned to the local "Administrators" group or "Power Users" group). See Set Log On Identity - for Direct MAPI connections ONLY for instructions.
Riva Installed on an Exchange Server
WARNING: Riva is not supported if installed on an Exchange server. DO NOT install Riva on an Exchange server if a MAPI connection will be used to connect Riva to Exchange. For MAPI connections, Riva requires an Outlook client be installed and Microsoft does not recommend installing Outlook on an Exchange server.
The same error may also occur if Riva is installed on an Exchange server and the following conditions exist:
Exchange uses a different CDO.DLL library from Outlook. Installing the Outlook CDO.DLL library or the Outlook client and this can create MAPI [MAPI_E_NOT_INITIALIZED(80040605)] connection errors.
Refer to Exchange Management Pack MAPI Logon Alert for instructions on how to reverse the registration of the CDO.DLL file to use the Exchange CDO.DLL file.